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Study into the Effectiveness of Using Activated Carbon of Kluwak Shell (Pangium Edule Reinw) as Adsorbent of Heavy Metals in Wastewater
 
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1
Department of Environmental Management, Graduate School, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
 
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
 
3
Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
 
 
Corresponding author
Yuyun Sukawati Rusma   

Department of Environmental Management, Graduate School, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
 
 
Ecol. Eng. Environ. Technol. 2024; 9
 
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ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to determine how well activated carbon made from kluwak shell (Pangium edule Reinw) works as an adsorbent to remove Pb(II) and Cu(II) heavy metal ions from wastewater used in laboratories. Kluwak shell was selected as an agricultural waste material due to its high carbon content, which makes it a promising material for activated carbon that can lower Pb(II) and Cu(II) heavy metal levels. Finding the ideal contact time, pH, and adsorption capacity as well as the kinetics and adsorption isotherm model are the main goals of this study. Using 25% KOH for carbonization and chemical activation, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA) for characterization are some of the research methods used. FTIR results showed the presence of O-H, C-H, C=C and C-O functional groups, while SEM showed more open pores after activation. SAA analysis indicated an activated carbon surface area of 3.11 m²/g, pore volume of 0.006 cm³/g, and pore diameter of 4.08 nm, categorized as mesoporous. The optimum condition for adsorption of Pb(II) ions is at pH 5 with contact time of 10 minutes and adsorption capacity of 21.83 mg/g. As for Cu(II) ions, the optimum condition is at pH 4 with a contact time of 20 minutes and adsorption capacity of 10.82 mg/g. The adsorption of metal ions is in accordance with the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second-order kinetics. The adsorption effectiveness of Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions from laboratory wastewater was 1.69 mg/g and 1.73 mg/g. It is concluded that activated kluwak shell can be used as Pb(II) and Cu(II) metal adsorbent.
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