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CONSEQUENCES OF THE DECREASE OF HYDROGENIC SITES TRANSFORMATIONS AS A RESULT OF DISCONTINUATION OF LACUSTRINE CHALK EXPLOITATION
 
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Katedra Gleboznawstwa i Ochrony Gleb, Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie, Pl. Łódzki 3, 10-957 Olsztyn
Publication date: 2014-10-20
 
Inż. Ekolog. 2013; 34:173–180
 
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ABSTRACT
The greatest exploitation of lacustrine chalk (3.5 million t per year) was noted in the 90. of 20th century when the transport of calcareous fertilizers was subsidized by the government. Since the financial support was desisted, the excavation of the chalk was stopped. Now, the excavation of chalk takes place only at one site, among 176 documented ones. Its resources of 165,000 t are decreased by 16,000 t every year. The exploitation was stopped at 68 sites, among which seven were completely exploited. The reduction in exploitation resulted in decreasing calcareous fertilization from 200 kg CaO to 37 kg CaO per hectare per year. After exploitation, these areas were partly reclaimed and transformed into water bodies, forests, anthropogenic arable lands. Some areas were left unarranged with parts of infrastructure used during exploitation. Former wetlands were geomechanically transformed and are used as illegal landfills. Retardation of lacustrine chalk exploitation saves the deposits and maintains the ecosystem functions. It is also associated with decreasing soil liming and negative effects of acidification.