Macroanalysis of Winter Wheat Seeds and Features of their Germination
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D.K. Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NASU, Akademika Zabolotnoho St. 154, Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine
Sumy National Agrarian University, H. Kondratieva St. 160, Sumy, 40021, Ukraine
Kyiv National Linguistic University, Velyka Vasylkivska St. 73, Kyiv, 03680, Ukraine
These authors had equal contribution to this work
Corresponding author
Tetiana Rozhkova   

D.K. Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NASU, Akademika Zabolotnoho St. 154, Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine
Ecol. Eng. Environ. Technol. 2024; 5:304-311
The peculiarities of the primary visual inspection of winter wheat seeds are considered. In the North-East of Ukraine, three groups of abnormal seeds (wrinkled, small seeds, and with a black point) were being identified by macroanalysis during 2017–2022. Factors affecting the representation of these groups in the samples were analyzed. It was determined that the amount of abnormal seeds is determined by the growing conditions of wheat, the place of cultivation and spraying of wheat with fungicides. The maximum number of substandard seeds was noted in Polissia, where black point dominated. In the Forest-steppe, the largest amount of such seeds was recorded in 2022, among which small seeds prevailed. A study of the characteristics of the manifestation of a black point showed that the blackening of the embryo occurs only from above. A seed with a black point is usually mature. For the first time, it was proven that spraying plants with essential oils of cinnamon and fennel leads to an increase in the appearance of the black point, which once again confirms its abiotic nature. The study of the germination of externally healthy and abnormal seeds of the Bohdana variety of the 2018 and 2019 harvests under conditions of low temperature and over moistening showed better indicators for the first group. But the germination of abnormal seeds had contradictory results, especially in different years. Comparison of the germination and development of seedlings from healthy and blackening seeds under favorable conditions during different periods of storage of wheat samples, from different places of cultivation, on different genotypes gave new unexpected results: higher indicators in the variant with black point. During further study in conditions of low temperature, which is explained by very late sowing of winter wheat in recent years in Ukraine, completely different data were obtained. Seed germination was better in healthy seeds. Seedlings developed faster at first also from healthy seeds, but on the last two dates of measurement, they began to grow faster from seeds with black point.
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