Rainfall Erosivity Factor within the Volyn Region
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Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University, St. Velika Berdychivska, 40, Zhytomyr, Ukraine, 10008
Polissia National University, old Boulevard 7, Zhytomyr city, 10008.
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Bogdan Matviichuk   

Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University, St. Velika Berdychivska, 40, Zhytomyr, Ukraine, 10008
Ecol. Eng. Environ. Technol. 2023; 6:135–146
The article presents results of the research and mathematical modelling of the rainfall erosivity factors. Erosion, whether water, wind or resulting from soil cultivation includes three processes – soil descaling, movement and sedimentation. Spatial characteristics of precipitation during two researched periods are similar having certain quantitative peculiar features. A common feature is maximum precipitation in the southwest and to a lesser extent in the eastern part of the region. Minimum precipitation is typical for the western part of the region. Peculiar feature of the second period of research is increase in contrasting effect of precipitation regime, when minimum values of precipitation decrease and maximum ones increase. Enhancement of contrasting effect of precipitation in space or time may cause increased intensity of erosion processes to the extent where the intensity of precipitation increases due to such contrasting effect. Thus, doubtless interest lies in the research of greater spatial or time contrasting effect of precipitation regime to activate water erosion. Thus, spatial peculiarities of distribution of precipitation within territory under study and time patterns correlate, but have their own special features. Clearly, total amount of precipitation as well as time distribution as a marker of correlation of intensification factor of erosion processes and defence mechanisms of vegetative cover are dominant for total losses of soil due to erosion. Coincidence of time of intense precipitation in summer and the availability of vegetative cover reduces erosion. Nevertheless, continuance of intense precipitation when harvesting is started may cause intensification of water erosion of soil. Use of spatial variables and regression equations for spatial data calibration helped to estimate the spatial variation of precipitation on the territory under study. Comparison of two periods of research showed that in 2010–2016 significant reduction of rainfall erosivity factor has taken place in comparison with the previous period 9.6–65.4 MJ mm ha–1 h–1per year. In Turiyskyi and Kovelskyi district changes in rainfall erosivity factor were minimal (9.6 and 16.7 MJ mm ha–1 h–1per year respectively). Conversely, in Ivanytskyi and Gorokhivskyi districts changes were the most significant – 58.1 and 65.4 MJ mm ha–1 h–1per year respectively.