Water in potato production, problems and challenges
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Instytut Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roślin, Oddział w Jadwisinie
Publication date: 2018-12-01
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Wojciech Nowacki   

Instytut Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roślin, Oddział w Jadwisinie, ul. Szaniawskiego 15, 05-140 Jadwisin
Inż. Ekolog. 2018; 6:14–25
The article characterizes the importance of water in the production and management of potato crops. Potato is a species with a relatively low transpiration coefficient, but the high biomass yield obtained from the surface unit in a short time span determines the high water needs set for 350 to 450 mm of rainfall during the growing season. The work determines the potato water requirements in individual phases of plant development, as well as analyzed the amount of atmospheric precipitation in Poland in recent years. The influence of irrigation on the yield and changes in the quality of potato tubers was also determined. In modern agrotechnics, natural rainfills replenished more and more often with irrigation allow to obtain very high potato yields. Methods improving the use of water needed for irrigation on potato plantations include: retention of winter water resources in reservoirs, cultivation on soils with high retention, compliance with optimal agrotechnical dates, cultivation of varieties with increased tolerance to drought stress, irrigation based on field deficit monitoring water capacity and the use of drip irrigation. The demand for water is not limited only to growing potatoes, but also to prepare tubers for modern trade (washing) as well as in food processing, starch production and distilling alcohol.