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Analysis of Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters in Refill Drinking Water Sources and Health Risk Assessment: A Case Study in Bandung District, Indonesia
 
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1
Indonesian Center for Agriculture Land Resources Research Development, Jalan Tentara Pelajar 12, Bogor 16124, Indonesia
2
Environmental Engineering Master Program, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
3
Environmental Management Technology Research Group, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Adib Hasanawi   

Indonesian Center for Agriculture Land Resources Research Development, Jalan Tentara Pelajar 12, Bogor 16124, Indonesia
 
Ecol. Eng. Environ. Technol. 2022; 4
 
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ABSTRACT
The decline in the quality of groundwater occurred in Bandung District, especially in three areas, namely Ciparay, Dayeuhkolot and Margaasih sub-districts. Pattern shifting in the use of drinking water occurred from groundwater sources to refill drinking water sources. Refill drinking water as a new emerging source is inseparable from contamination. Therefore, a public health risk assessment is carried out due to the use of refill drinking water. Analysis of physicochemical and microbial of refill drinking water was carried out on 45 refill drinking water sample in three areas. Risk characterization is carried out by quantitative methods of calculating the value of the Hazard Quotient (HQ), Hazard Index (HI), and Excess Cancer Risk (ECR) with Monte Carlo analysis. Quality of refill drinking water exceeds the quality standard of Indonesian Minister of Health Regulation No. 492/2010 on the parameters of E. coli, total coliform, and heavy metals (Fe, Al, Se). Oral exposure from refill drinking water showed an acceptable non-carcinogenic risk (HI ≤ 1) in all categories from three areas but adult category in Ciparay Subdistrict has maximum tolerable value for Excess Cancer Risk (ECR), 1 x 10-4, shown that the use of refill drinking water in this area can affect to human health in long-term situation for adults. Reducing public health risk can conducted by improving the process in refill drinking water station, evaluate the quality regularly, and revised the land use masterplan by the government.