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Integration of Processes of Radionuclide-Contaminated Territories Decontamination in the Framework of Their Ecological-Socio-Economic Rehabilitation
Yelizaveta Chernysh 1, 2  
,   Magdalena Balintova 3, 2  
,   Vladimir Shtepa 4, 2  
,   Polina Skvortsova 1  
,   Maksym Skydanenko 1  
,   Manabu Fukui 5, 2  
 
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1
Sumy State University, 2, Rymskogo-Korsakova st., 40007, Sumy, Ukraine
2
International Innovation and Applied Center “Aquatic Artery”, 2, Rymskogo-Korsakova st., 40007, Sumy, Ukraine
3
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, 4, Vysokoškolská st. 04200, Kosice, Slovakia
4
Polissya State University, 23, Dneprovskoy flotilii st., 225710, Pinsk, Republic of Belarus
5
Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-19, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, 060-0819, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Magdalena Balintova   

Institute of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, 4, Vysokoškolská st. 04200, Kosice, Slovakia
Publication date: 2022-01-01
 
Ecol. Eng. Environ. Technol. 2022; 1:110–124
 
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ABSTRACT
Large-scale disasters at nuclear power plants (NPP) and their consequences are still the subject of discussion by the world scientific community, which makes mankind recognize the unsolved problem of radiation pollution. Accordingly, the search for new effective biocomposite materials with high sorption capacity to eliminate harmful effects associated with radiation contamination of large territories is an urgent task on a global scale. This paper is devoted to the study of processes of decontamination of areas contaminated with radionuclides, the search for new mechanisms of fixation of radionuclides and heavy metals in the soil using the matrix material of different genesis. To intensify the process of radionuclide fixation in the soil-plant system the method consisting of introducing into the soil the organic-mineral biocomposite based on sewage sludge and phosphogypsum after anaerobic fermentation was proposed. It is necessary to further study the processes of sorption, radionuclides solubilization due to complexation with organic agents present in matrix materials of different nature. Mechanisms of radionuclide and heavy metal fixation using matrix material of different genesis were analyzed and a general model was formed. The direction of integration of radionuclide-contaminated soil decontamination technologies into the process of ecological, social, and economic development of the territories under rehabilitation after the accidents at the Chernobyl NPP and Fukushima-1 NPP is proposed.