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Study of Harmful Effects of Pesticides, Especially Seed Producers, on the Components of Agrocenosis
 
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Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding, Heroiv Ukraine av. 9, 54025, Mykolaiv, Ukraine
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Olga G. Grushyna   

Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding, Heroiv Ukraine av. 9, 54025, Mykolaiv, Ukraine
Publication date: 2022-01-01
 
Ecol. Eng. Environ. Technol. 2022; 1:102–109
 
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ABSTRACT
The paper shows that seed and planting material treatment is the most economical and least dangerous way to use pesticides. The formula of ecotoxicity calculation for comparing the danger level of soil pollution by various substances was given. The analysis of influence of some seed disinfectants: Black Jack (active substances – humic acids (19-21%) and fulvic acid (3-5%); Kelpak (active substances – auxins (11 mg/l), cytoxins (0.03 mg/l); Dalila (imidacloprid 600 g/l); Impact K (flutriafol (117.5 g/l) and carbendazim 250 g/l) on various groups of plants, soils and microorganisms was carried out. It was proven that the use of drugs with fungicidal action causes a certain effect on some soil parameters, mostly due to the effect on the microbiological activity of the soil. The results obtained in the research show that each of the chemical compounds, which is the active substance of the studied pesticides, does not have a significant detrimental effect on the rhizosphere biota when used separately; however, regular use of chemical pesticides can lead to an irreversible disturbance of the natural microbial balance in the soil and a gradual loss of fertility. Much attention is paid to the study of soil organisms, in particular earthworms, which have become the main test species in the tests to assess the toxicity of new xenobiotics, as well as to calculate the risks of adverse effects of pollutants on the environment. It was shown that pesticides of different nature of action have varying effects on soil microbiota and earthworms. Studies have shown that pre-sowing treatment of seeds with pesticides has undeniable economic, organizational and technological advantages over other methods of applying chemical plant protection products. The calculation of the ecological danger of pesticides was carried out and it was concluded that pre-sowing seed treatment can be called an ecologically low-hazardous measure. The paper recommended the main ways to prevent the increase of the negative impact of pesticides (including seed disinfectants) on the environment.