Synthesis of Mn-Co-Ni Composite Electrode by Anodic and Cathodic Electrodeposition for Indirect Electro-oxidation of Phenol: Optimization of the Removal by Response Surface Methodology
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Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
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Yamama A. Ahmed   

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Ecol. Eng. Environ. Technol. 2023; 8
In the present work, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize process variables and find the best circumstances for indirect electrochemical oxidation of mimicked wastewater to remove phenol contaminants using prepared ternary composite electrode. The electrodeposition process is used for the synthesis of a ternary composite electrode of Mn, Co, and Ni oxides. The selected concentrations of metal salts of these elements were 0.05, 0.1, and 1.5 M, with constant molar ratio, current density, and electrolysis time of 1:1:1, 25 mA/cm2, and 2 h. Interestedly, the gathered Mn-Co-Ni oxides were deposited at both the anode and cathode. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) facilitated the qualitative characterization of surface structure and morphology of the accumulated oxides. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) provided a semi-quantitative analysis of deposit composition. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) apparatus quantified the roughness. We examined the efficiency of composite electrodes in coinciding with the removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) under current densities of 40, 60, and 80 mA/cm2, pH values of 3, 4, and 5, and NaCl concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2 g/l. RSM covered the optimization of process parameters in conjunction with Central Composite Design (CCD). The COD represented the response function in the optimization procedure. The optimal current density, NaCl concentration, and pH magnitude were 80 mA/cm2, 1.717 g/l, and 3, respectively. The efficiency of COD elimination of 99.925% attained after 1 hour of indirect electrochemical oxidation with an energy consumption of 152.380 kWh per kilogram of COD. The COD elimination model is significant based on the correlation coefficient (R2) and F-values, and the experimental data fitted well to a second-order polynomial model with R2 of 98.93%.