The Effect of the Addition of Pumpkin Flour on the Rheological, Nutritional, Quality, and Sensory Properties of Bread
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Faculty of Agribusiness, University of “Haxhi Zeka”, Peja, Rr. KLA. Peja, 30000, Kosovo
Faculty of Food Technology and Nutrition, University of Tetova, Street Ilinden Bb 1200, Tetovo 1220, North Macedonia
Faculty of Tourism Management, Hotel and Environment, University of “Haxhi Zeka”, Rr. KLA. Peja, 30000, Kosovo
Corresponding author
Adem Dreshaj   

Faculty of Tourism Management, Hotel and Environment, University of “Haxhi Zeka”, Rr. KLA. Peja, 30000, Kosovo
Ecol. Eng. Environ. Technol. 2023; 7:178–185
Bread in our country and beyond is still the most consumed food product, but the increase in consumer awareness of healthy foods has stimulated interest in the addition of various ingredients to improve their nutritional value and sensory properties. This study aimed to identify the ideal percentage of adding pumpkin flour through its influence on the rheological, nutritional, qualitative, and sensory properties of bread. Breads were produced with different levels of pumpkin flour (control, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 25%). The results of the rheological properties with the Brabender farinograph and extensograph devices showed that the pumpkin flour pulp had an impact on the delay in dough formation, thus affecting the increase in water absorption, development time, stability, resistance, and energy of the dough. The Failing number was very high for all types of bread over 350 seconds, and there were no significant differences between them (p < 0.05). The content of nutrients in the bread, such as fat, cellulose, and ash, increased with the increase in the content of pumpkin flour, while the protein content decreased. Also, with the addition of pumpkin flour, the content of iron, magnesium, potassium, and calcium increased, while the content of zinc and manganese decreased. Bread with 5% pumpkin flour had the best specific volume, while control bread and bread with 5% pumpkin flour had better acidity. Bread with 5% pumpkin flour and control bread had better sensory properties, but even breads with 10% pumpkin flour had good sensory properties. So, we suggest the use of less than 10% pumpkin flour in the production of bread without compromising the quality or sensory properties of the bread.