Characterization of the Chemical Properties of Deposited Red Clay Soil Using GIS Based Inverse Distance Weighted Method in Kirkuk City, Iraq
More details
Hide details
Technical Engineering College, Northern Technical University, Kirkuk, Iraq
Corresponding author
Veyan Farhad Salahalden   

Northern Technical University/Technical Engineering College Kirkuk, Iraq
Ecol. Eng. Environ. Technol. 2023; 7:46–60
This study focuses on the physical and chemical properties of soils and their geographical distribution, with a specific focus on red clay. The Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) technique, integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS), was employed to predict the chemical characteristics of the soil. Sampling was conducted at twenty-one locations in three areas: Bor Mountain, Jambor, and Kirkuk Hills, all located within Kirkuk City. Seven soil properties were examined: acidity, organic matter content, total dissolved salts (T.D.S.), gypsum, chlorides, and sulfates. The chemical analysis revealed that the soil pH ranged within an acidic range. One sample exhibited a high T.D.S. level. Chloride levels varied within a specific range. The concentration of organic matter in the soil exhibited variability. Sulfur trioxide and gypsum concentrations were found to be below average in the study region. The IDW technique effectively mapped the distribution of the different soil parameters within Kirkuk City, demonstrating a range from good to excellent accuracy. Additionally, a cross-validation method was employed to assess the correlation between the fundamental and investigated chemical properties. The results showed good to excellent degrees of correlation in the different structures studied.